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I present a hypothesis that may explain the "special" forms of oxyhydrogen created by some generators or some conditions and are claimed a special form of water, Hydrogen or else.
If this hypothesis can be validated then anyone can re-adjust his actual electrolysis cell or the power supply to produce consistent repeatable positive results.
Potassium hydride Hypothesis
The “abnormal”proprieties of the gas mixture resulted from a common duct alkaline electrolytic cell are attributed to an exotic species called Brown Gas, HHO, Hydroxy or EEW (Electrically Expanded Water).
Science rejects that species and name the stoichiometric mixture simple oxy-hydrogen.
Still, the oxy-hydrogen mixture could not produce the same effects in – as example – enhance of hydrocarbon fuels or – sometimes – in welding, melting or fusing materials with the electrolytic gases like some electrolytic gases in some conditions.
I present a hypothesis that may explain the proprieties of electrolytic gases.
Potassium Hydride or Sodium Hydride
( depend on the cation used as electrolyte).
Water electrolysis is described below:
“In pure water at the negatively charged cathode, a reduction reaction takes place, with electrons (e−) from the cathode being given to hydrogen cations to form hydrogen gas (the half reaction balanced with acid):
At the positively charged anode, an oxidation reaction occurs, generating oxygen gas and giving electrons to the anode to complete the circuit:
Anode (oxidation): 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4e−
The same half reactions can also be balanced with base as listed below. Not all half reactions must be balanced with acid or base. Many do, like the oxidation or reduction of water listed here. To add half reactions they must both be balanced with either acid or base.
Cathode (reduction): 2 H2O(l) + 2e− → H2(g) + 2 OH-(aq)
Anode (oxidation): 4 OH- (aq) → O2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + 4 e−
Combining either half reaction pair yields the same overall decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen:
Overall reaction: 2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)
The number of hydrogen molecules produced is thus twice the number of oxygen molecules. Assuming equal temperature and pressure for both gases, the produced hydrogen gas has therefore twice the volume of the produced oxygen gas. The number of electrons pushed through the water is twice the number of generated hydrogen molecules and four times the number of generated oxygen molecules.
Thermodynamics of the process
Anode (oxidation): 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4e− Eoox = -1.23 V (Eored = 1.23 ))
Cathode (reduction): 2 H+(aq) + 2e− → H2(g) Eored = 0.00 V
Thus, the standard potential of the water electrolysis cell is -1.23 V at 25 °C at pH 0 (H+ = 1.0 M). At 25 °C with pH 7 (H+ = 1.0×10−7 M), the potential is unchanged based on the Nernst equation.
However, electrolysis will not generally proceed at these voltages, as the electrical input must provide the full amount of enthalpy of the H2-O2 products (286 kJ per mol).
This takes the theoretical and real observed threshold of electrolysis to (-)1.48 V. This is a standard value derived from basic energy conservation for H2 with a known molar enthalpy value of 286 kJ, (diatomic H2 having 2 Faraday units of charge per mol), therefore the ideal voltage becomes 286,000/(2*96485) = 1.48 V.
The negative voltage indicates the Gibbs free energy for electrolysis of water is greater than zero for these reactions. This can be found using the G = -nFE equation from chemical kinetics, where n is the moles of electrons and F is the Faraday constant. The reaction cannot occur without adding necessary energy, usually supplied by an external electrical power source.
If the above described processes occur in pure water, H+ cations will accumulate at the anode and OH− anions will accumulate at the cathode. This can be verified by adding a pH indicator to the water: the water near the anode is acidic while the water near the cathode is basic. The negative hydroxyl ions that approach the anode mostly combine with the positive hydronium ions (H3O+) to form water. The positive hydronium ions that approach the negative cathode mostly combine with negative hydroxyl ions to form water. Relatively few hydronium (hydroxyl) ions reach the cathode (anode). This can cause a concentration overpotential at both electrodes.
Pure water is a fairly good insulator since it has a low autoionization, Kw = 1.0 x 10−14 at room temperature and thus pure water conducts current poorly, 0.055 µS·cm−1.
Unless a very large potential is applied to cause an increase in the autoionization of water the electrolysis of pure water proceeds very slowly limited by the overall conductivity.
If a water-soluble electrolyte is added, the conductivity of the water rises considerably. The electrolyte disassociates into cations and anions; the anions rush towards the anode and neutralize the buildup of positively charged H+ there; similarly, the cations rush towards the cathode and neutralize the buildup of negatively charged OH− there. This allows the continued flow of electricity.
The following cations have lower electrode potential than H+ and are therefore suitable for use as electrolyte cations: Li+, Rb+, K+, Cs+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+. Sodium and lithium are frequently used, as they form inexpensive, soluble salts.
Considering the alkaline electrolyte most usual in electrolytic generation of Hydrogen and Oxygen in industrial grade PEM generators then indeed only separated H2 and O2 can be obtained with electrolyte temperature in range of 900 C, 30% KOH concentration and 1.8 Volts.
Considering the alkaline electrolyte for semi-industrial common duct electrolytic cell with the voltage equal or higher than 2 Volts, then lower KOH concentration can be used and the gas mixture Oxyhydrogen – H2 and O2 more or less in perfect stoichiometric ratio - can be obtained.
At that voltage per cell the current drawn is higher and a strong reaction occurs.
Due electrochemical collateral events the cell will be heated to thermal runaway - so cooling procedures are applied.
But, in a common duct electrolytic cell IF the voltage is lower than 2 V the temperature is lower and can be maintained below 60 Co.
Now, considering that Potassium melting point is 63.5 C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium)
it can be presumed that once the cell temperature is maintained under a value < 60Co it is possible that H ( monatomic Hydrogen – Protium ) evolved from cathode to not combine in diatomic H2.
It may bond with K+ solvated ion.
(Potassium Hydride )
may be formed.
“Potassium hydride is produced by direct combination of the metal and hydrogen:
2 K + H2 → 2 KH
This reaction was discovered by Humphry Davy soon after his 1807 discovery of potassium, when he noted that the metal would vaporize in a current of hydrogen when heated just below its boiling point.
Potassium hydride is soluble in fused hydroxides and salt mixtures, but not in organic solvents.”
Considering the alkaline environment (the electrolyte) then KH - could “survive” as gas and can be transferred, collected and stored.
Slight vacuumed cell is a probably a favorable condition.
Inside the piston chamber of ICE the KH reaction with H2O (from intake air humidity or from previous un-exhausted combustion gases) lead to further reactions releasing the monatomic Hydrogen and KOH
2 KH+2H2O=2KOH+4 H
Protium will react with Oxygen to form water
KOH may react with NOx from previous power stroke non-exhausted gases to produce an oxidizer and one more monatomic Protium.
KOH + NOx=KNOx + H
Now, combustion of hydrocarbon in presence of KNOx as oxidizer is enhanced.
Oxidation of monatomic Hydrogen ( now 5 atoms from every 2 KH molecules obtained by this special electrolysis ) release more thermal energy than H2 from normal electrolysis.
Overall, in certain conditions the electrolysis process can improve the combustion of hydrocarbon and in same time release more water in the piston chamber.
That water contribute thermodynamic efficiency of ICE (improving the heat to pressure conversion) and is also a NOx controlling method.
Nevertheless the yield of gas production from this special electrolysis - low voltage will be reduced the current - but common duct series cells may balance the gas volume reducing the battery voltage to desired value 1.6-1.7 volts and controlling the temperature in same time.
Indeed the H2 and O2 will be also produced by electrolytic process as well and the total mixture become dangerous if compressed since KH and O2 may react due pyrophoric proprieties of KH.
Above described hypothesis correspond with description of conditions, electrolytic cell design and parameters from most of successful implementation of fuel saving devices based on named HHO, Hydroxy, EEW.
ΔH 0 (4H+O2) = 449 – 5(463)
O=O O – H
ΔH 0 (4H+O2) = 449- 2315
ΔH 0 (4H+O2) = - 1866 kJ
Instead of - 481 kJ
I further go with my hypothesis..
1. Monatomic Hydrogen is the key for positive energetical balance, that is a fact!
2. Chemical Hydrogen is always monatomic.
3. To transport the "nascent" Protium to the user is a challenging operation due multiples and variables conditions..it will "decay" into diatomic form in most cases.
4. Storage in a chemical for as a Hydride - brief explained in my hypothesis - may be the most affordable solution.
But Protium may form Hydrides in other ways and that may be the explanation of overheating above 2 volts per cell, the exothermical reaction :
H− + H+ → H2; ΔH = −1676 kJ/mol
Is may happen at voltage above 2.25 V per cell ( even at 2 V Gibbs free energy the reaction may happen)
H2 + 2e− ⇌ 2H−; E
o = −2.25 V
Indeed the cell will get hot!
Using a PWM one may handle thermal runaway but not solve the problem with the quality of electrolytic gases required to produce significant effects as fuel saver ( no mention to replace the fuel in totality)!
If water is not present in the combustion chamber the effect may not complete.
I attach the revision to my hypothesis.
I have a link there about Potassium Hydride..maybe a chemist will take a look and may be someone will add some observation here..
For sure some will hate me if my hypothesis will become a validated theory ...for sure all of you there may take a advantage of that ..
Or will be just me bragging here as always..:-)
what happened with the ammonium nitrate hypothesis marius? :) it looks interesting to me since 3NO2+H2O->2HNO3+NO and HNO3+NH3->NH4NO3 but the ammonia part is difficult...
Well done Marius! I can tell you put much effort into your hypothesis.
I discovered long ago there is a difference between hho gas produced with 4,5 and 6 plate "dry" systems and an 11 plate "wet" system. The clear solution in our hydrolyzers turns cloudy when current is applied. You can see visibly larger bubbles where the solution touches the cathode and anode.
In test after test, I found that it took 1.2 ml/min of gas produced in a dry system, the yield the same mileage increase as .3 ml/min of the gas produced in our hydrolyzer. This proves part of your theory. There is also a difference in in the amount of current used to produce 1.2 ml/min at 7-8 amps versus 1.5 amps in our hydrolyzers. This keeps the temperature low and to date we have never experienced a thermal runaway reaction.
We use sodium hydroxide in our systems because it can be poured down the drain and if you get it on your skin you have a couple of minutes to get it off before it begins to burn. Unlike KOH.
You have done your research I can tell because I too read about Faraday's discovery that 1.4 volts is the ideal voltage for expanding water electrically.
I am of the thought though that- in our case- 2 sodium atoms attach to an oxygen atom to form sodium oxide (2NaO)- a substance used in pottery, which is then harmlessly combusted in the engine. Ergo: no need to use a bubbler or any type of filter to keep sodium out of the gas flowing to the engine.
Keep up the good work. Hopefully your words will help those here with their designs for producing hho.
I add a link to the diagram of proto-electrolysis process used in my water/electrolytic gases system.
The principle works in alkaline common duct bipolar cells also..A simple electric arrangement reduce the current but increase the gas generation.
Barry, so called dry cells have advantages..the power management is wrong on all methods applied :
so called "brute force", PWM or CCPWM.
A cell itself is a resistor and capacitor ..should combine those proprieties in order to work efficient.
And efficiency improve the conversion of energy from a form to other in fractal pattern according to Fibonacci series graphic: the ancient swastika!
Again, I agree with you Marius. Once I learned that 1.4 volts was the optimal voltage for separating water into it's component gasses, I concentrated on producing a constant volume of hho using a specific amount of electrolyte for each size engine. The positive results from our customers with our ECO model systems ado indeed validate what you say. Our second generation systems were dry cell plate style systems. You are right again, they do have advantages.
Interesting that Fibonacci drawing. Never saw that before but it does make me think.
I tried to make the process in close loop and to re-use the looses - starting from a simple Sankey diagram ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sankey_diagram).
The Yin Yang like ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yin_Yang ) model represent the water cycle from 2H2O to H3O and OH and reversed.
The arrows represent the decomposition process of water dimer 2H2O into H2O, H and OH, as Sankey diagram represent it.
It come out as a swastika (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swastika) model but Fibonacci series can be represented in same way...
Should be a connection between the size or electrodes/power and water volume related to Fibonacci series....
I not had the intention to draw that but it come out ...:-)